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Located in the northwest of the archipelago, in the Windward Barlavento group, the island covers an area of km 2 with a population of 76, Exact figures for diaspora speakers of this particular variety are unknown. For the two Sotavento varieties of Santiago and Brava, see Lang and Baptista in this volume. Ina stable year-old Cape Verdean Creole from Sotavento mostly from Fogo was brought by the first settlers — approximately 50 slaves with their Portuguese-born owner and 20 couples, who were freed tenant farmers.
This Creole then underwent some degree of restructuring towards Portuguese due to contact with settlers from continental Portugal, the Azores, and Madeira; in these settlers formed a community of fishermen, shepherds, and farmers Swolkien None of the slaves spoke African languages; the overwhelming majority had been born on other Cape Verdean islands. Table 1. The initially small language community grew steadily in spite of demographic fluctuations in years of famine and a general neglect of the island by the Portuguese colonial administration.
Mindelo officially became a city in ; in the s, up topassengers passed annually through Mindelo, which turned into the biggest urban centre of the colony. Foreigners, especially English-speaking Gibraltar Jews, opened businesses in the city and outed the Portuguese-born inhabitants; thus, English has left its traces on the variety in some specific vocabulary related to sports and port jobs see below. By the end of the 19th century, a new, more stratified entrepreneurial society with a wealthy white and light-skinned mulatto bourgeoisie emerged, thus hampering social mobility.
In this setting, Portuguese was established as the prestige language in a diglossic situation.
Primary schooling in Portuguesethough better than on other islands, was available only to an elite minority, 3 and only a minority of Creole speakers mostly civil servants of lower ranks were likely to acquire some kind of proficiency in Portuguese. As a result, Mindelo has become a cosmopolitan city, though it has remained small. Characteristically, even in the Portuguese Consulate at Mindelo the use of Creole is widespread.
Portuguese, overwhelmingly used in writing, is still pervasive in the media and schools where code-switching is common 5 and in formal situations. However, its use in electronic media varies, as informal e-mails, mobile messages, and chats are likely to be written in Creole. In blogs, often written by upper class bilinguals, Portuguese is more likely to be used, though the comments are often in Creole.
With its yacht marina, international airport, and seaport, Mindelo has a markedly cosmopolitan character, with a growing of foreign professionals living on the island. It is not uncommon for children of Portuguese citizens to converse in Creole with their parents especially if they are the offspring of mixed unions. Sporadically, upper class Cape Verdean parents may insist on speaking Portuguese to their children, behaviour that might also be socially ridiculed.
Due to the small size of the island and modern ease of contact between the speakers, these varieties are closely related and can be distinguished from one another by a few phonetic and lexical features best analyzed in terms of social rather than geographical variation. The city of Mindelo represents a highly stratified society in economic but also, to a considerable degree, in racial terms.
A small elite is concentrated in and around a well-kept colonial city centre dating from the time of British economic predominance, while the majority of the population dwells in areas on the outskirts often resembling shanty towns. No variationist study on this variety is available yet. Nevertheless, what can be observed is that the speech of the upper middle class, often educated in Portugal or Brazil, is highly acrolectal and marked by lexical borrowings and morpho-syntactic interference from Portuguese.
Due to the democratization of secondary education and a wide-ranging offer of higher education institutes, access to Portuguese is now available to the majority of the population. However, a high level of competence in European Portuguese, the equivalent of a passport to a reduced job market, is still only available to the very few upper middle class speakers educated in Portugal.
The island strongly identifies with Europe and having dual citizenship American or European is appreciated in symbolic terms. A command of English is highly valued socially. People who have emigrated to Europe especially Portugal, Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands often visit their relatives on the islands and speak a Creole that is perceived as archaic. The speakers of Atlantic and Chinese languages, i. The language isn't written very much. No standard orthography exists, and the few existing texts such as humoristic columns in the newspaper or billboard advertisements are spelled in an unsystematized fashion.
Radio and television programmes in the Santiago variety have increased inter-island linguistic contact, and migrations have reduced this negative perception, especially among young speakers. The first scholarly article that was solely dedicated to this variety is Pereira Table 2. Low or open vowels occur only in stressed syllables. The alveolar trill is often realized as a uvular trill. Table 3. Word stress is generally placed on the penultimate syllable. But contrary to other varieties of Cape Verdean Creole, verbs are always stressed on the last vowel.
Modifying adjectives follow the noun. Adjectives in both attributive and predicative position obligatorily agree in natural gender with human nouns e. There is a wide range of marking strategies. Plurality can be inferred from the context or indicated on the first element in the noun phrase such as the plural forms of articles, demonstratives, possessives, or by numerals and quantifiers.
Also, the plural suffix - s exists, though its use is variable. Factors such as context, animacy, specificity, and language contact play an important role in determining whether a noun will take a plural marker. Inflectional plural marking on human nouns, as in 1represents a stable tendency while the use of the suffix on inanimate nouns is an exception and can be ascribed to recent borrowings from the lexifier which have often not been phonologically integrated e.
There are two demonstratives. This dual deictic distinction is not necessarily spatial as it may be temporal. Personal pronouns can be classified into dependent subject and object pronouns and independent pronouns. Table 4. Personal pronouns, adnominal and pronominal possessives. As shown in Table 4, there is no gender distinction with personal pronouns. A binary politeness distinction is made in second person. Possession is marked by juxtaposition. Personal pronouns can be overtly coned with a personal name or with other NPs e. Generic nouns are unmarked as in 4.
Comparative constructions of inferiority are avoided. Contrary to Cape Verdean Creole of Santiagothey do not show tense or aspect suffixes. PL fifteen year. The main difficulty of the analysis rests in the multifunctionality and allomorphy of the markers, which is caused by phonological erosion. Hence context, especially that provided by adverbs, is often crucial in determining the meaning of the marker. The markers derive from those of the Sotavento varieties. Table 5. There are two copulas. In negative clauses with indefinite pronouns, the negator ka co-occurs with the indefinite pronoun The verbal coordinating conjunction is y as in 7b.
With ditransitive verbs the indirect object precedes the direct object yielding a double-object construction as in 17 ; if the recipient is human, the indirect object may be coded by the preposition pathough this construction is less common and considered acrolectal cf. Tina give 3SG. POSS teacher. In prohibitive constructions subject pronouns are obligatory 19c. POL tell people. NEG 2SG bite-3 sg. The following examples illustrate weather 20 and existential constructions 21 :.
DET line entangle on each. Polar questions are distinguished from declarative sentences by interrogative intonation. Question words in content questions are fronted 25abut they may remain in situ 25b :. In focused constructions f ocused elements are moved to the left and followed by the complementizer k. In nominal cleft constructions the focused element may be preceded by the copula both present and suppletive formsand followed by the background clause; optionally the focused element may be preceded by a copula highlighter The complementizer k used with epistemic verbs seems to represent a recent development.
Relative clauses follow the head noun and are headed by the relative pronoun k.
There are several relativization strategies. In 31 a direct object is relativized, the relative pronoun k is optional, and there is no resumptive pronoun. In 32 there is no relative pronoun, and the resumptive pronoun shows no agreement with its antecedent, 3SG being a default form.
PST in school. In instrumental relative clauses, the relative particle is optional, and the resumptive pronoun is obligatory. There is a growing of loan words from modern Portuguese.
Veiga, Manuel. Diskrison strutural di lingua kabuverdianu, Praia: Institutu Kabuverdianu di Livru. O crioulo de Cabo Verde. Mindelo: Instituto Caboverdeano do Livro e do Disco. Almada, Maria Dulce de Oliveira.
Cabo Verde. Breves estudos sobre o crioulo das ilhas de Cabo Verde oferecido ao Dr. Hugo Schuchardt. In Morais-Barbosa, Jorge ed.
Lisbon: Academia Internacional de Cultura Portuguesa. Nos tempos do Porto Grande do Mindelo. Pereira, Dulce. Um crioulo de outro planeta. Swolkien, Dominika. Portugal: University of Coimbra, Doctoral dissertation. Author Dominika Swolkien cite. Glossed textCape Verde asian sex
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